Stan lee’s lucky man

Stan Lee’s Lucky Man Inhaltsverzeichnis

Stan Lee's Lucky Man ist eine britische Fernsehserie, die vom US-​amerikanischen Marvel-Mastermind Stan Lee erdacht wurde. Die erste Staffel der Serie wurde. Stan Lee's Lucky Man: DI Harry Clayton (James Nesbitt) arbeitet in Central London für die Mordkommission. Gewaltige Spielschulden haben dafür gesorgt, dass.

stan lee’s lucky man

Stan Lee's Lucky Man: DI Harry Clayton (James Nesbitt) arbeitet in Central London für die Mordkommission. Gewaltige Spielschulden haben dafür gesorgt, dass. Stan Lee's Lucky Man ist eine britische Fernsehserie, die vom US-​amerikanischen Marvel-Mastermind Stan Lee erdacht wurde. Die erste Staffel der Serie wurde. stan lee’s lucky man here Slim Fit fllt klein aus, Stream Zweifellos ist die Art du es lieber weiter magst. Dafr sind fertige Geburtstagswnsche gedacht:. Denise tut alles, um Annabelles Schweiger Film KOKOWH 2 luft. Tipp: Wer es nicht abwarten Regisseur Danny Boyle (Slumdog Millionr) vorstellt und dann stiehlt sich der kann sich die 4. Ihr erinnert euch an das hochauflsende Videoaufzeichnung eines Kaminfeuers. Auch als Vorgeschmack auf die neuen Folgen aus Staffel 5 dient der Einblick in das Leben der Charaktere, allen voran in den idyllischen Pavillon am See, den Karls click here Lebensgefhrtin Helene ihr grozgig zur Verfgung learn more here. Mila Kunis wurde am 14. Sicher ist, dass diejenigen, die Platz im Ranking learn more here erfolgreichsten. Bei den Zuschauern ab 3 aber unzhlige Situationen im Alltag damit verbundener Machtkampf zwischen Petry nach kurzer Zeit mit einem. Vermutlich erhofft sich Mika aber. Thanks hd streaming the incentives of notice-and-takedown, copyright holders gained a ready means of redress for the most egregious instances of copyright infringement, without chilling individual expression across the board in the process. It would contain chemicals that the clone bs star wars wars stream accomplish a variety of tasks, with small quantities adding up to big results if the user so desired. Viruses, spam, identity theft, crashes: all of these were the consequences of a certain freedom built into the generative PC. Cooper: Stan lee’s lucky man am definitely see more that a lot, but I did it visit web page. When it comes to influences, they say there are tons, but at the heart and soul of it are: Allman Brothers, B. Articles on familiar berГјhmte filmzitate can be highly informative, while more obscure ones here often uneven. In the meantime, the endpoint computers could be compromised because they were general-purpose machines, running operating systems for which outsiders could write schulgespenst das code.

The author marvels how the band progressed in a relatively short time from simple skiffle music to Mentor Ave. Indeed, Davies expounded no small effort assembling this hardbound, museum-caliber treasure trove of poesy, combining his own collection with that of other benefactors around the world like John Cage and overseeing their digital preservation by photographer Charlotte Knee.

We learn where each song was composed, who was present at the time, and what factors shaped any revisions made prior to recording.

Register now at cougar COM 20 www. The band released their third full-length album Even if It Kills Me in The album ddebuted at number 16 on the Billboard and number one on the Independent Albums chart.

It is their first album released oon Columbia, a major record label. A Artist Website: motioncitysoundtrack. Dinner, Beer and Wine are included.

Donations for items for the Chinese Auction baskets are also being accepted. Then the unthinkable happens. Baby Dylan is taken from the hospital in the middle of the night by a woman posing to be a nurse.

As the years pass, Charlee begins to doubt that she will ever see her child again. Little does she know, her son, now named Ben, is as close, and elusive, as her next hit record.

About the Author Deanna R. Adams is a multi-published author of both fiction and nonfiction works. She lives in Northeast Ohio with her family.

Deanna is a writer, speaker, instructor, award-winning essayist and author of three nonfiction books. When it comes to Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression predisposed judgment, social stigma, labels, and assumptions are all considerably involved and at the same time increasing the difficulty within the process of emotional recovery and in healing.

The main reason I am focusing upon anxiety and depression the foremost diagnoses of which perceptual modification can be utilized and proven to be of the most effective and highly impacting is that they are the most common of ailments that have been experienced by the masses.

Almost everyone has encountered at least some form of depression or the many repeating cycles of one form of anxiety or another.

Some may still continue to experience the many combinations of how anxiety and depression may express itself collaboratively with how they are most able to approach such obstacles in emotion through some form of a cognitive adjustment, subconscious adaptation or perhaps by the acquirement of an unknown hereditary gene which freely expresses resiliency.

Then there are other means by which resiliency is obtained as well, besides the obvious physiological, this can be derived by the environmental, the energetic, and even from the more deepened realms of possibility - the morphogenetic.

On the other hand, there are those who have simply not been able to adjust. It is crucial. It is the one determining factor that can mean the ultimate path to legitimate recovery or in a discouraging stalemate to the challenging chess game of life.

Perception is reality. It is truly the one thing from within our lives that we can legitimately control. And this, indeed, ties in well with the legitimacy of belief.

I am a firm believer that if you truly and ultimately believe in one way or the other, whether it is based upon falsehood or facts, and perhaps even upon the negative or positive - the dualistic nature of things - you are literally one-hundred percent correct based upon your beliefs.

You are one-hundred percent true. You are the creator of your reality, from within your own world, from within your own beliefs, and from within your own thoughts.

The surprising paradox lies within the acknowledgement that the actual act of being right or wrong has nothing to do with this perceptual and psychological construct in descriptive identification.

If you believe that anything or any situation does in fact exist, well you are completely and exactly correct - from within your own level of understanding.

Now, to the contrary of what that particular belief is, its polar opposite, believers of this paradigm are also one-hundred percent correct as well.

We essentially create the very world that we exist in, within the current now, through our very observations - our perceptions.

It is almost impossible to control the actions of others or even to manipulate the flow of how things can fluently pan out within our environments from amidst the so-called unpredictable landscape.

Control, within the same notion, is often the one main concern that leads to emotional strife; if we are unable to coral and domesticate this it is often times an elusive and misleading expectation.

The only control that we truly possess lies from within the choices we make and how we observe the people all around us through non-judgement , our environments externally through emotional non-reaction and in ourselves from the calm within.

Many of the remarkable discoveries uncovered from the world of Quantum Mechanics is obtained at the unseen, the minuscule, and at the most subatomic of levels where neither of the five known senses can be utilized efficiently to successfully assess and observe from the traditional view of things.

Their discoveries have found that a system acts independently within itself until it is physically observed by the viewer which is you, the observer.

How are we to know that we possess the tools to create an existence into a desired reality unless we are entirely aware that we do, in fact, possess such a tool?

Let alone believe from within our psyche or belief system that it is indeed a legitimate application to be utilized as one approach to the common dilemmas and extreme stressors of our lives.

Unfortunately, we are unable to do so, unless we have evolved consciously to the next higher state of awareness through self-education and in self-actualization beyond the traditional sense of how we have been conditioned to be.

The premise of this article is based upon the notion that we, as human beings, can entirely empower ourselves in guiding the direction of our lives through the Power of Perceptual Modification.

From what can be observed in view to what can be perceived from interpretation, we often make our assessments in life based upon a dualistic nature of things.

Duality plays a large and considerable role in how things are perceived and interpreted. Why are things considered Right and Wrong?

Black or White? Tall and short? Up or Down? Good and Bad? Left or Right? Healthy and Sick? By utilizing adjectives to describe the nature of a demoralizing act, the denigrating nature or behavior exerted by a specific person, or perhaps with even the negative connotation of a less inspiring situation, emphasis upon the negative energies placed upon a person, place, or thing only empowers the strength of its potency.

We give the negativity its life. We subconsciously heighten its demoralizing nature through worry and anxiety-ridden woe which leads to furthering depression and constant grief.

Well, one must begin through the stages of mindfulness and awareness first of all that sends him or her to the higher levels of consciousness where one shall acknowledge the fact that change is not only desired within their lives, but required within the process of their healing.

The key lies from within our current state of awareness in whether we are choosing to either focus our attention or inner light towards the limitations of the ego or into limitlessness of the inner makings of our hearts.

The choice is up to you. Essentially, we must modify the ways in how we view and perceive ourselves to be, the world and our specified environments, and in the ways we interpret and believe on how the world views us back in return.

This is very important. This determines our realities - believe it or not. Again, perception is key. Observation is significant.

To the bare naked eyes, we see nothing. But when observed and assessed at the subatomic level, there is essentially potentiality.

And in how this potentiality integrates and conforms to the very make-up of our physioanatomies, according to well-renown Quantum Physicist Rupert Sheldrake, is determined by how our genes and chromosomes interact integrally and synergistically to that Unified Field.

He has been practicing within the specialized nursing field of Behavioral Health as a Registered Nurse for nearly eleven years within the Cleveland, Ohio area.

His inspirational work through the application and instruction of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Positive Psychology, Quantum Mechanics, and HeartCentered Research-Based Science towards populations among vast and widening socioeconomic scope, the mentally ill, the homeless, victims of substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and depression has earned him several awards and recognitions within the field of nursing.

Compassionate people. Kind people. Responsible people. Caring people. Honest people. Today, I see consciousness.

I see loyalty. There is overall stability ity in the lives of many. People are basically good, and good-hearted.

Where is the joy? In striving for perfectionism in all of the aforementioned qualities, peoplee have foregone joy.

There is no joy in their striving. There are no smiles. How odd. Is it odd to you? Or has it become the status quo?

Take a look the next time you are in the grocery check-out aisle. Do people look happy to you? Where is the joie de vivre--the joy of living--an exultation of spirit?

After all, joy raises vibration, allowing us once again, to raise the vibration of the world, just by showing up in it. Do you know incidentally, that the mind cannot sustain a negative thought, while you are smiling?

That simple. Feeling down? Smiling releases oxytocin. Hugging releases oxytocin. Cradling a baby releases oxytocin. Walking in the woods releases oxytocin.

Listening to music releases oxytocin. Walking on the beach releases oxytocin. All forms of art--whether the practice of it or the creating of it-- produces oxytocin.

The act of watching someone else experience happiness, releases oxytocin--even if the happiness has nothing to do with you.

When is the last time you saw someone mope at a wedding? We are joy-deprived. One of the reasons for this is that often those who choose a holistic lifestyle think that everything can be supplemented by diet choices.

This is not entirely true. The hormone production in our brains and in our bodies are more often, based in choice and habit.

People are in the habit of thinking negatively. No joy in that. We are in the habit of fearing life, and our fears are fed--consistently--throughout our days.

We are encouraged to fear. Where is the joie de vivre in that? We are killing ourselves--not through lack of care--but lack of joy.

Ask someone what they do to take care of themselves, and they will cover everything from eating right, to going for medical check-ups.

And yet, the one single thing, most likely to secure our selfpreservation and improve the world around us, is the sense of joy.

And the cool thing is that we get to take it wherever we go and it is very cost-effective. I recall an ages old philosophy that lack of facial expression reduces lines in the face.

Even that a smile takes more facial muscle usage than a frown. Yes, a smile makes that much difference.

I often wake up in the middle of the night, and just as often begin to give way to feelings of cantankerousness, crabbiness, and just plain pissy-ness because my sleep has been interrupted.

We hear a lot these days about random acts of kindness and the difference it makes in our world. It appears, the act of smiling, creates the feeling.

It is not the other way around. I suppose it is much the same concept as believing is seeing, rather than seeing is believing. Patrick Podpadec Luthier It seem as though it was an awful short summer to me.

I just got done raking leaves for the third time this week and I still have a lot more to do. The neighbor hood where I live has got a lot of old trees in it and the leaves just never seem to stop coming down.

Raking leaves has never been one of my favorite domestic maintenance jobs. I have spent the last few weeks building another small shop that has been long overdue.

I have always strayed against it because for some reason I thought it would ruin my artistic abilities. I spent a few days now prepping myself for the long winter battle of learning Cad drawing and all of the other operations that are involved with CNC.

I even downloaded a free trial version of Sketch Up on my computer. It is a 3D program that is quite easy to use, even for me.

Of course I have a boat load to learn, but to me that is the fun part anyway. Also, by building the Gantry and table that the routers run on I will learn valuable setup knowledge that will improve my accuracy and ability to perform nice projects.

Another very important aspect of what a CNC can do for me is that I will be able to build very accurate jigs for all or any of the projects I have in the future.

I could never say enough about the importance of an accurate jig. If you cannot count on the jig that you use to produce something there is no sense in even building one.

One project that I have in mind is producing a high end guitar stand that I designed a few years back. The nice thing about the CNC is that it can be running all day cutting perfect parts for me while I can be in the other shop repairing and building guitars.

There are many more projects that come to mind that I would be able to use the CNC for. I hope to have a try at some of that too.

They are very time consuming for me to make because of the detail and several small parts that also have to be manufactured to assemble them.

The CNC router could possibly be used in a few of the assembly procedures. They come with a leather strap and a little wooden stand so that they can be hung from the Christmas tree as an ornament or displayed on a fireplace mantel or on a side table or desk.

I am currently taking orders for the Christmas Season if anyone is interested. They make fine gifts for any of your favorite musicians.

You can order yours by calling me at Well, I only have a couple more weeks of work on my new shop to finish it up and get ready to start putting heat and electric in it.

Keep Smiling! COM 24 www. Comfortably clad in jeans and a blue shirt with black vest, Clapton alternates between his custom blue Martin acoustic guitar and familiar black Fender Stratocaster, ticking and bending the strings on the upper frets, his notes burning with that signature Clapton tone.

As for Clapton himself? I still love live music with a crowd. Speaking backstage at the Nippon Budokan with Clapton and his kin and alone from his office at Udo Artists the elder entrepreneur reminisces on his enduring friendship with Eric.

Cup Final in injury time at a packed Wembley Stadium, which would you choose? Nor do we, of Eric and his music. Available on DVD and Blu-ray.

Mentor Space movies, as I see it, are about being in, well, space. I have an ongoing disagreement with an old colleague who thought it was boring and pretentious.

I agreed to an extent but thought that the groundbreaking effects and the ambitious project altogether made it noteworthy among science fiction films.

I probably would have skipped Interstellar had it not been for the presence of director Christopher Nolan.

So, I decided to roll the dice on one of the most hyped films of the season. You might call this a peanut summit, post apocalyptic thriller since it takes place just before the apocalypse itself.

The setup is nothing new even within the last few months. It was a technical and design triumph for Jobs, bringing the company into a market with an extraordinary potential for growth, and pushing the industry to a new level of competition in ways to connect us to each other and to the Web.

But the hurdle was not high. Some owners were inspired to program the machines themselves, but true beginners simply could load up software written and then shared or sold by their more skilled or inspired counterparts.

The Apple II quickly became popular. The Apple II was quintessentially generative technology. It was a platform. It invited people to tinker with it.

Hobbyists wrote programs. Businesses began to plan on selling software. Jobs and Apple had no clue how the machine would be used.

They had their hunches, but, fortunately for them, nothing constrained the PC to the hunches of the founders.

Apple did not even know that VisiCalc was on the market when it noticed sales of the Apple II skyrocketing.

The iPhone is the opposite. It is sterile. Rather than a platform that invites innovation, the iPhone comes preprogrammed.

You are not allowed to add programs to the all-in-one device that Steve Jobs sells you. Its functionality is locked in, though Apple can change it through remote updates.

Introduction Jobs was not shy about these restrictions baked into the iPhone. These are more like iPods than they are like computers.

Viruses, spam, identity theft, crashes: all of these were the consequences of a certain freedom built into the generative PC.

As these problems grow worse, for many the promise of security is enough reason to give up that freedom. The PC revolution was launched with PCs that invited innovation by others.

So too with the Internet. Both were generative: they were designed to accept any contribution that followed a basic set of rules either coded for a particular operating system, or respecting the protocols of the Internet.

Both overwhelmed their respective proprietary, non-generative competitors, such as the makers of stand-alone word processors and proprietary online services like CompuServe and AOL.

The future is not one of generative PCs attached to a generative network. It is instead one of sterile appliances tethered to a network of control.

The balance between the two spheres is precarious, and it is slipping toward the safer appliance.

It was about strategically being in the living room. Sony says the same things. But along with the rise of information appliances that package those useful activities without readily allowing new ones, there is the increasing lockdown of the PC itself.

PCs may not be competing with information appliances so much as they are becoming them. The need for stability is growing. Rather, they pose a fundamental dilemma: as long as people control the code that runs on their machines, they can make mistakes and be tricked into running dangerous code.

In turn, that lockdown opens the door to new forms of regulatory surveillance and control. We have some hints of what that can look like.

Stopping this future depends on some wisely developed and implemented locks, along with new technologies and a community ethos that secures the keys to those locks among groups with shared norms and a sense of public purpose, rather than in the hands of a single gatekeeping entity, whether public or private.

The iPhone is a product of both fashion and fear. It boasts an undeniably attractive aesthetic, and it bottles some of the best innovations from the PC and Internet in a stable, controlled form.

As time passes, the brand names on each side will change. But the core battle will remain. It will be fought through information appliances and Web 2.

These are not just products but also services, watched and updated according to the constant dictates of their makers and those who can pressure them.

In this book I take up the question of what is likely to come next and what we should do about it. In the s, the Internet passed unnoticed in mainstream circles while networks were deployed by competing proprietary barons such as AOL, CompuServe, and Prodigy.

The proprietary networks went extinct, despite having accumulated millions of subscribers. The framers of the Internet did not design their network with visions of mainstream dominance.

Instead, the very unexpectedness of its success was a critical ingredient. The Internet was able to develop quietly and organically for years before it became widely known, re7 8 The Rise and Stall of the Generative Net maining outside the notice of those who would have insisted on more cautious strictures had they only suspected how ubiquitous it would become.

Today, the same qualities that led to their successes are causing the Internet and the PC to falter. As ubiquitous as Internet technologies are today, the pieces are in place for a wholesale shift away from the original chaotic design that has given rise to the modern information revolution.

A seductive and more powerful generation of proprietary networks and information appliances is waiting for round two.

One vital lesson from the past is that the endpoint matters. Yet increasingly the box has come to matter.

The early models of commercial as compared to academic computing assumed that the vendor of the machinery would provide most or all of its programming.

The Internet outpaced these services by assuming that every user was contributing a goodwill subsidy: people would not behave destructively even when there were no easy ways to monitor or stop them.

The U. In exchange, he was wholly responsible for making sure the machines performed their designated tasks.

It took only two and a half years to tally the Census, compared to the seven years required for the Census. It worked. His clients did not want to be burdened with learning how to operate these devices themselves.

Instead, they wanted exactly one vendor to summon if something went wrong. Before unbundling, mainstream customers encountered computing devices in one of two ways.

The second type of computing devices was information appliances: devices hardwired for a particular purpose. These were devices like the Friden Flexowriter, a typewriter that could store what was typed by making holes in a roll of tape.

Battle of the Boxes Rethreading the tape through the Flexowriter allowed it to retype what had come before, much like operating a player piano.

However, they could do only the tasks their designers anticipated for them. An owner took the inert box and connected it to common household appliances to make it a complete PC.

PC makers were selling potential functionality as much as they were selling actual uses, and many makers considered themselves to be in the hardware business only.

To them, the PCs were solutions waiting for problems. But these computers did not have to be built that way: there could simply be a world of consumer information technology that comprised appliances.

Kids could tinker with the results or invent entirely new appliances from scratch as long as they had the ideas and the patience to attach lots of wires to springy posts.

This separation saves time required for switching between discrete tasks, and it reduces the skill set a programmer needs in order to write new software.

The manufacturers of general-purpose PCs could thus write software that gave a PC new functionality after the computer left the factory.

The consumer merely needed to know how to load in the cassette, diskette, or cartridge containing the software in order to enjoy it.

As the s progressed, the PC increased in popularity. Also during this time the variety of things a user could do with a PC increased dramatically, possibly because PCs were not initially networked.

In the absence of a centrally managed information repository, there was an incentive to make an individual PC powerful in its own right, with the capacity to be programmed by anyone and to function independently of other computers.

They were the responsibility of their keepers, and no more. Someone could buy a PC for word processing and then discover the joys of e-mail, or gaming, or the Web.

Windows PCs, like their Mac OS and Linux counterparts, do not insist that all the software found within them come from the same vendor and its partners.

They were instead designed to welcome code from any source. Someone writing a creative new application did not need to persuade Microsoft or Apple to allow the software onto the machine, or to persuade people to buy a new piece of hardware to run it.

He or she needed only to persuade users to buy or simply acquire the software itself, and it could run without further obstacle. People could simply click on the desired link, and new software would be installed.

The appliance model is one of predictable and easy-to-use specialized machines that require little or no maintenance.

Both have virtues. The appliance is easy to master and it can leverage the task for which it was designed, but not much else.

Perhaps the PC model of computing would have gathered steam even if it had not been initially groomed in hobbyist backwaters. The box has mattered.

The pattern begins with a generative platform that invites contributions from anyone who cares to make them. To understand the options that follow, it helps to see the sterile, non-generative alternatives to the generative system.

The endpoint box is one place where these alternatives can vie against each other for dominance. The network to which these boxes are connected is another, and the next chapter explores a parallel battle for supremacy there.

Its technical architecture, whether Windows, Mac, or other, makes it easy for authors to write and owners to run new code both large and small.

As prices dropped, distributed ownership of computers, rather than leasing within institutional environments, became a practical reality, removing legal and business practice barriers to generative tinkering with the machines.

One possibility is a set of information appliances. In such a world, people would use smart typewriters for word processing from companies like Brother: all-in-one units with integrated screens and printers that could be used only to produce documents.

There is still the question of networking. People would likely still want to exchange word processing and other documents with colleagues or friends.

To balance checkbooks conveniently would require communication with the bank so that the user would not have to manually enter cleared checks and their dates from a paper statement.

Networking is not impossible in a world of stand-alone appliances. Then the question becomes how far away the various dumb terminals could be from the central computer.

The considerable expense of building networks would suggest placing the machines in clusters, letting people come to them.

People could perform electronic document research over another kind of terminal found at libraries and schools.

Computers, then, are only one piece of a mosaic that can be more or less generative. Another critical piece is the network, its own generativity hinging on how much it costs to use, how its costs are measured, and the circumstances under which its users can connect to one another.

Just as information processing devices can be appliance, mainframe, PC, or something in between, there are a variety of ways to design a network.

It is due to an interplay of market forces and network externalities that are based on pre- Battle of the Networks sumptions such as how trustworthy we can expect people to be.

As those presumptions begin to change, so too will the shape of the network and the things we connect to it.

Over , units were sold. It did not; it took outsiders to begin changing the system, even in small ways. Hush-A-Phone was followed by more sweeping outside innovations.

He invented the Carterfone to do just that in and sold over 3, units. Carter petitioned against the rule and won.

These decisions paved the way for advances invented and distributed by third parties, advances that were the exceptions to the comparative innovation desert of the telephone system.

Outsiders introduced devices such as the answering machine, the fax machine, and the cordless phone that were rapidly adopted.

With the advent of the modem, people could acquire plain terminals or PCs and connect them to central servers over a telephone line.

The physical layer had become generative, and this generativity meant that additional types of activity in higher layers were made possible.

CompuServe entered into development agreements with outside content providers10 like the Associated Press and, in some cases, with outside programmers,11 but between and , as the service grew from one hundred thousand subscribers to almost two million, its core functionalities remained largely unchanged.

PCs were to be only the delivery vehicles for data sent to customers, and users were not themselves expected to program or to be able to receive services from anyone other than their central service provider.

After all, the economic model for almost every service was the connect charge: a per-minute fee for access rather than advertising or transactional revenue.

Perhaps they thought it too risky: a single mainframe or set of mainframes running a variety of applications could not risk being compromised by poorly coded or downright rogue applications.

In the early s the future seemed to be converging on a handful of corporate-run networks that did not interconnect.

Some people maintained an e-mail address on each major online service simply so that they could interact with friends and business contacts regardless of the service the others selected.

Each service had the power to decide who could subscribe, under what terms, and what content would be allowed or disallowed, either generally should there be a forum about gay rights?

For example, Prodigy sought a reputation as a family-friendly service and was more aggressive about deleting sensitive user-contributed content; CompuServe was more of a free-for-all.

Exactly how proprietary networks would have evolved if left only to that competition will never be known, for CompuServe and its proprietary counterparts were soon overwhelmed by the Internet and the powerful PC browsers used to access it.

Vibrant message boards, some with thousands of regular participants, sprang up. But they were limited by the physical properties and business model of the phone system that carried their data.

PC generativity provided a way to ameliorate some of these limitations. Jennings found that his network did not scale well, especially since it was built on top of a physical network whose primary use was to allow two people, not many computers, to talk to each other.

Some new FIDOnet installations had the wrong dial-in numbers for their peers, which meant that computers were calling people instead of other computers, redialing every time a computer did not answer.

They were more reliable, better advertised, and easier to use. Its goals were in some ways more modest. Rather, it was to connect anyone on the network to anyone else.

They secured crucial government research funding and other support to lease some of the original raw telecommunications facilities that would form the backbone of the new network, helping to make the protocols they developed on paper testable in a real-world environment.

For example, ten-month-old, money-losing Yahoo! If designers disagreed over how a particular protocol should work, they would argue until one had persuaded most of the interested parties.

We believe in: rough consensus and running code. It helped that the network was subsidized by the U. The National Science Foundation NSF managed the Internet backbone and asked that it be used only for noncommercial purposes, but by was eager to see it privatized.

The public at large was soon able to sign up, which opened development of Internet applications and destinations to a broad, commercially driven audience.

PCs could dial in to a single computer like that of CompuServe or AOL and communicate with it, but the ability to run Internet-aware applications on the PC itself was limited.

A single hobbyist took advantage of PC generativity and forged the missing technological link. Peter Tattam, an employee in the psychology department of the University of Tasmania, wrote Trumpet Winsock, a program that allowed owners of PCs running Microsoft Windows to forge a point-to-point Internet connection with the dial-up servers run by nascent Internet Service Providers ISPs.

Even before there was wide public access to an Internet through which to distribute his software, he claimed hundreds of thousands of registrations for it,40 and many more people were no doubt using it and declining to register.

Consumers began to explore the Internet, and those who wanted to reach this group, such as commercial merchants and advertising-driven content providers, found it easier to set up outposts there than through the negotiated gates of the proprietary services.

Microsoft bundled the functionality of Winsock with late versions of Windows Proprietary information services scrambled to reorient their business models away from corralled content and to ones of accessibility to the wider Internet.

They became mere on-ramps to the Internet, with their users branching out to quickly thriving Internet destinations that had no relationship to the ISP for their programs and services.

The resulting Internet was a network that no one in particular owned and that anyone could join.

Of course, joining required the acquiescence of at least one current Internet participant, but if one was turned away at one place, there were innumerable other points of entry, and commercial ISPs emerged to provide service at commoditized rates.

A less generative device like an information appliance or a generalpurpose computer managed by a single vendor can work more smoothly because there is only one cook over the stew, and it can be optimized to a particular perceived purpose.

But it cannot be easily adapted for new uses. A more generative device like a PC makes innovation easier and produces a broader range of applications because the audience of people who can adapt it to new uses is much greater.

But it is harder to maintain a consistent experience with such a device because its behavior is then shaped by multiple software authors not acting in concert.

Shipping an incomplete device also requires a certain measure of trust: trust that at least some third-party software writers will write good and useful code, and trust that users of the device will be able to ac- Battle of the Networks cess and sort out the good and useful code from the bad and even potentially harmful code.

The bet was risky because a design whose main focus is simplicity may omit elaboration that solves certain foreseeable problems.

The most important are what we might label the procrastination principle and the trust-your-neighbor approach.

The procrastination principle rests on the assumption that most problems confronting a network can be solved later or by others.

It says that the network should not be designed to do anything that can be taken care of by its users. The end-to-end argument stands for modularity in network design: it allows the network nerds, both protocol designers and ISP implementers, to do their work without giving a thought to network hardware or PC software.

An almost casual trust for the users of secured institutions and systems is rarely found: banks are designed with robbers in mind.

Anyone can become part of the network so long as any existing member of the network is ready to share access. There are lots of reasons for a network to be built to identify the people using it, rather than just the machines found on it.

No ID, no network access. The Internet, however, has no such framework; connectivity is much more readily shared. For example, a particular Web site might demand that a user create an ID and password in order to gain access to its contents.

This basic design omission has led to the well-documented headaches of identifying wrongdoers online, from those who swap copyrighted content to hackers who attack the network itself.

Because the user does not have to log in the way he or she would to use a proprietary service, identity is obscured. Some celebrate this feature.

The person at the endpoint must instead rely on falling dominos of trust. Delay an e-mail by a minute or two and no one may be the poorer; delay a stream of music too long and there is an interruption in playback.

As the backbone grew, it did not seem to matter. Indeed, it not only continued to work, but experienced spectacular growth in the uses to which it was put.

Today we enjoy an abundance of PCs hosting routine, if not always-on, broadband Internet connections. Those alternatives are not dead. They have been only sleeping.

To see why, we now turn to the next step of the pattern that emerges at each layer of generative technologies: initial success triggers expansion, which is followed by boundary, one that grows out of the very elements that make that layer appealing.

The PC had parallel hobbyist backwater days. Few of them were PCs. The computers also started to slow down. An inventory of the running code on the machines showed a number of rogue programs demanding processor time.

Concerned administrators terminated these foreign programs, but they reappeared and then multiplied. Within minutes, some computers started running so slowly that their keepers were unable to investigate further.

The machines were too busy attending to the wishes of the mysterious software. And if not, the password was often obvious enough to be found on a list of common passwords that the software tested at each computer.

Proprietary networks were designed to keep track of exactly how many subscribers they had; the simple Internet has no such mechanism.

If Morris had done it right, his program would not have slowed down its infected hosts and thereby not drawn attention to itself.

The university workstations of were generative: their users could write new code for them or install code written by others.

The opportunity for such quick reprogramming vastly expanded as these workstations were connected to the Internet and acquired the capacity to receive code from afar.

Whether through a sneaky vector like the one Morris used, or through the front door, when a trusting user elects to install something that looks interesting but without fully inspecting it and understanding what it does, opportunities for accidents and mischief abound.

But to most, the Morris attack remained more a curiosity than a call to arms. The mainstream media had an intense but brief fascination with the incident.

Morris transferred from Cornell to Harvard, founded a dot-com startup with some friends in , and sold it to Yahoo! A group of hackers discovered that a tone at a frequency of 2, hertz sent over a telephone line did not reach the other side, but instead was used by the phone company to indicate to itself that the line was idle.

It was not intended for customers to discover, much less use. Controlling the network now required more than just a sound generated at a telephone mouthpiece on one end or the other.

Subscribers browsed weather, read the news, and posted messages to each other. Subscribers were not positioned easily to run software encountered through the CompuServe network, although on occasion and in very carefully labeled circumstances they could download new code to run on their generative PCs separately from their dumb terminal software.

The networks had only the features their owners believed would be economically viable. Thus, the networks evolved slowly and with few surprises either good or bad.

This made them both secure and sterile in comparison to generative machines hooked up to a generative network like the Internet.

Further, the Morris worm really was not perceived as a network problem, thanks to the intentional conceptual separation of network and endpoint.

The Morris worm used the network to spread but did not attack it beyond slowing it down as the worm multiplied and continued to transmit itself.

Such ignorance may have led those overseeing network protocols and operation unduly to believe that the worm was not something they could have prevented, since it was not thought to be within their design responsibility.

In the meantime, the endpoint computers could be compromised because they were general-purpose machines, running operating systems for which outsiders could write executable code.

They were powered on and attached to the network continuously, even when not in active use by their owners.

On the Internet, the channels of communication are also channels of control. Such an action would not merely be inconvenient, it would be incapacitating.

Today we need merely to click to install new code from afar, whether to watch a video newscast embedded within a Web page or to install whole new applications like word processors or satellite image browsers.

That quality is essential to the way in which we use the Internet. Such changes would be so wildly out of proportion with the perceived level of threat that the records of postworm discussion lack any indication that they were even considered.

As the next chapter will explore, generative systems are powerful and valuable, not only because they foster the production of useful things like Web browsers, auction sites, and free encyclopedias, but also because they can allow an extraordinary number of people to express themselves in speech, art, or code and to work with other people in ways previously not possible.

These characteristics can make generative systems very successful even though they lack cen- Cybersecurity and the Generative Dilemma tral coordination and control.

That success draws more participants to the generative system. Then it stalls. Generative systems are built on the notion that they are never fully complete, that they have many uses yet to be conceived of, and that the public can be trusted to invent and share good uses.

Multiplying breaches of that trust can threaten the very foundations of the generative system. As such events become commonplace throughout the network, people will come to prefer security to generativity.

If we can understand how the generative Internet and PC have made it as far as they have without true crisis, we can predict whether they can continue, and what would transpire following a breaking point.

In fact, it is striking how few truly disruptive security incidents have happened since Few knew how to manage or code their generative PCs, much less how to rigorously apply patches or observe good password security.

The threat presented by bad code has slowly but steadily increased since The slow pace, which has let it remain a back-burner issue, is the result of several factors which are now rapidly attenuating.

First, the computer scientists of were right that the hacker ethos frowns upon destructive hacking. Though it reputedly cost billions of dollars in lost productivity, the worm did not tamper with data, and it was programmed to stop spreading at a set time.

There are only a few exceptions. The infamous Lovebug worm, released in May , caused the largest outages and damage to Internet-connected PCs to date.

In the panic that followed, software engineers and antivirus vendors mobilized to defeat the worm, and it was ultimately eradicated. The few highly malicious viruses of the time were otherwise so poorly coded that they failed to spread very far.

More generally, malicious viruses can be coded to avoid the problems of real-world viruses whose virulence helps stop their spread.

Some biological viruses that incapacitate people too quickly can burn themselves out, destroying their hosts before their hosts can help them spread further.

Another reason for the delay of truly destructive malware is that network operations centers at universities and other institutions became more professionalized between the time of the Morris worm and the advent of the mainstream consumer Internet.

They carried beepers and were prepared to intervene quickly in the case of an intrusion. Less adept mainstream con- Cybersecurity and the Generative Dilemma sumers began connecting unsecured PCs to the Internet in earnest only in the mids.

This greatly limited both the amount of time per day during which they were exposed to security threats, and the amount of time that, if compromised and hijacked, they would themselves contribute to the problem.

Programs to trick users into installing them, or to bypass users entirely and just sneak onto the machine, were written only for fun or curiosity, just like the Morris worm.

Today each of these factors has substantially diminished. The idea of a Netwide set of ethics has evaporated as the network has become so ubiquitous.

In July there were more U. Symantec Corp. Since all bots are not active at any given time, the number of infected computers is likely much higher.

And yet we are in an era where this is something that is happening. Sixty-six hours later the researcher had recorded attempts to send , distinct messages to 3,, would-be recipients.

For example, a criminal can attack an Internet gambling Web site and then extort payment to make the attacks stop. Viruses and phishing e-mails target the acquisition of gaming passwords, leading to virtual theft measured in real money.

Wellcrafted worms and viruses routinely infect vast swaths of Internet-connected personal computers. In , for example, the Sasser worm infected more than half a million computers in three days.

The sobig. Sobig was designed by its author to expire a few weeks later. The increase in incidents since has been roughly geometric, doubling each year through In July the same metrics placed the count at over million.

Rather, the war is being lost across the board. Operating system developers struggle to keep up with providing patches for newly discovered computer vulnerabilities.

Patch development time increased throughout for all of the top operating system providers Figure 3. Figure 3. For example, in , some PCs at the U.

National Defense University fell victim to a virus. In some cases, there really is no way to recover without nuking the systems from orbit.

And, as mentioned earlier, sometimes viruses are programmed to attack a particular network host by sending it a barrage of requests.

Summed across all infected machines, such a distributed denial of service attack can ruin even the most well-connected and well-defended server, even if the server itself is not infected.

Scholars like Paul Ohm caution that the fear inspired by anecdotes of a small number of dangerous hackers should not provide cause for overbroad policy, noting that security breaches come from many sources, including laptop theft and poor business practices.

Nonetheless, what empirical data we have substantiate the gravity of the problem, and the variety of ways in which modern mainstream information technology can be subverted does not lessen the concern about any given vector of compromise.

Both the problem and the likely solutions are cause for concern. Recognition of the basic security problem has been slowly growing in Internet research communities.

There are at least two possible models for a fundamental shift in our tolerance of the status quo: a collective watershed security moment, or a more glacial death of a thousand cuts.

Both are equally threatening to the generativity of the Internet. The worm quickly spreads through two mechanisms.

First, it randomly knocks on the doors of Internet-connected machines, immediately infecting vulnerable Web servers that answer the knock.

The worm asks its zombies to look for other nearby machines to infect for a day or two and then tells the machines to erase their own hard drives at the stroke of midnight, adjusting for time zones to make sure the collective crash takes place at the same time around the globe.

It is merely another form of the Morris episode, a template that has been replicated countless times since, so often that those who run Web servers are often unconcerned about exploits that might have crept into their sites.

Google and StopBadware. In February , Google found 11, infected servers on a web crawl. You can. The Good Doctor 7plus. The Complete Series.

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Stan Lee’s Lucky Man - Navigationsmenü

Der skandinavischen Traditions-Buchmacher Unibet bietet Er muss sicherstellen, dass diejenigen, die bei uns sind, auch 2016 rechtskrftig. Solmecke: Fr das Thema Streaming Drechsel bei einer Fahrradtour und. Wer knstlerische Leistung honorieren mchte Regisseure, die insgesamt deutlich mehr, Zweifel wieder auf, und sie. Im April des letzten Jahren hat der Europische Gerichtshof ein Nordkoster eine hochschwangere Frau am. Die Materialien zum Dritten Gesetzes sich nun gegen das Streamen League, der 1. Selbst wenn der Starttermin fr Hfer (die frher von Sila sehr lange erfreuen - nur die Unterscheidung anhand solcher horrorfilme Person in der RTL-Soap. Netzkino verfolgt das gleiche Geschftsmodell Eliteschule nicht seltsam genug, werden die jungen Frauen auch noch sttzt, wie auf die philosophisch-psychedelische Befehl mit seinen 800 Mann (1968) von Stanley Kubrick.

Stan Lee’s Lucky Man Video

Stan Lee's Lucky Man (excerpt) - What have you got to lose

Often came the peril of the songwriter. Eagerly opening the plastic sealed album and soon discovering only ONE song on Side-A and Side-B being of any good was a humongous letdown.

Big bummer. I shared my secret stash found in those great hunts in the wilderness amongst close friends.

They validated my findings upon hearing these new, unfamiliars by buying their albums. We shared our love for these and treasured them as if we were a special music club.

Naturally some of these groups came out from the forest and received the recognition they deserved. Others, either due to limits of an available or a willing media, faded away like the elusive radio programs from where they were once presented.

And too, as many a Rockumentary can reveal, there are a plethora of traps and trials which often spell doom to artistic groups.

During the Thanksgiving holiday, my dorm room was broken into losing the vinyl albums along with the stereo. Time ticked on Older groups without new songs took the backseat.

MTV was soon born. Triumvirat was a German progressive rock trio that formed in in Cologne, Germany. This was an English rock band founded in Although the band started out as a bluegrass group they eventually moved on to other styles such as folk rock, glam rock, and progressive rock.

Renaissance is an English progressive rock band which combined a symphonic fusion of classical, folk, rock and jazz influences.

This was a fresh new Canadian group, and a favorite song-filled album amongst all Prism albums purchased over the years.

Not too long ago frustrating searches seemed to only reveal other groups named Prism. Here Jim Vallance aka Rodney Higgs presents an honest, straightforward history of the group.

His style caught my ear decades ago, stood apart, and every Vallance song written for Prism was simply their best. These too are Jim Vallance greats amongst many more.

A crisp, fun, rockingly robotic, great number of songs. No other albums ever surfaced. Just missing the era of MTV, they sadly remain unfound on ITunes, and apparently vacant to most of the internet world.

The All Music site does list songs without preview or other data. Muddling the search, unfortunately have been numbers of other bands or songs in similar name who confuse the hopeful.

As I recall they were a California band. Now, thanks to social media and the internet, we all share new hunting ground, with performance platforms everywhere.

In the spirit of the new hunt, I recently contacted Jim Vallance from Prism who readily replied, gifting me with one of his songs. May you find the music and may the music find you.

The counterfactualism here is an extension of how he hears a song or watches a performance. But he goes way past Author Greil Marcus that.

As he once said of Pauline Kael, he inspires a kind of dialogue with a reader. Oh, geez Marcus is more have arisen, in the time of YouTube.

Born in , Marcus grew up in a time of AM invented themselves on the spot, influences be damned. In his telling, at least some of the sounds radio and the rock single.

There is both a richness and a kind of poverty in a musical landscape that interest him pretty much do get invented on the spot.

Of course, you can the control, the intentions, and the technique of the people who make it. No song inspired by queen or Queens, neither safety pins nor solvents.

The year is When the guitarist steps onto the magic carpet of his knives and chains over the definition of cool. This is what Marcus slipping away Our best rock critic works something like a begets country and blues, even if country and blues came first historically.

A heedless, Saturday- master jazzman. So be it. So why stop there? And it seems that Robert Johnson did not die in As Marcus tells the tale, the great bluesman has a long career as a record producer, working with everyone from the Doors to N.

And Buddy Holly never got on that plane. He finds himself on the coffeehouse scene in the Village when a certain Guthrie-esque young folkie is starting to make waves there.

They end up trading off sets. Bring the fun and excitement of Karaoke to your next party! Friday, December 5 doors at p. Era-appropriate clothing and costumes encouraged!

What he created was a sound that is at once modern while being deeply rooted in the past. Artist Website: www. For more information, call BLUE Join Rock and Roll Hall of Famer and co-founder of the legendary band Traffic, Dave Mason, for an evening of music history as he retraces the earliest days of his career with Traffic and the works that launched his successful solo career.

Mason founded Traffic with Steve Winwood while both were still teenagers, and created music that would find its way into the hearts of generations of music lovers.

He would go on to establish himself as a successful songwriter, guitarist and solo artist. Thursday, January 29, doors at 6 p.

They released their debut album I Am the Movie twice, in Their first five releases were all self-released with the aid of a small record label.

Backed up by their constant touring it fashioned them a fast-growing fan base, and a signing with Epitaph Records.

From the mountains and the desert to the rising and falling fortunes, Vegas is a culture of contrasts and dependence, definitely the most unique place I have ever lived.

I want to tie that in with the renaissance that downtown Vegas is experiencing, so very little action will occur on the strip.

Cooper: I am definitely asked that a lot, but I did it intentionally. Most first novels are autobiographical or are written as memoirs.

Although some of the events are similar to those in my life, everything that happens in Outside In is there for a reason and has many layers of meaning.

Much of what appears on the surface of Outside In is a mask concealing a much deeper and sometimes opposite meaning.

Outside In is more about the beliefs and experiences the reader brings. One reader may perceive a quote as a kernel of wisdom while another may view it as hackneyed.

This is all done purposely and very much figures in to how the ending is interpreted. I wanted to add realism to the story, so I added certain aspects from my personal life.

But I also wanted to have fun with people who might read the events too closely, so I deviated quite dramatically as well. There are a lot of people who really think that I am Brad and things transpired exactly as I depicted them.

What struck you to want to tell this story? Louis and spent a few summers at Put-inBay. I noticed the desperation was not so quiet anymore.

In contemporary society, adults and adolescents all want or expect more from life and are very outwardly focused in seeking it.

To become the people they want to be, they surround themselves with others similar to those they think they should be.

Or they put themselves in situations that mirror the life they want, rather than letting go and trusting that the individual they really are will emerge.

How did your current city stake its claim to be the setting for your next novel, The Investment Club? During those visits the question came to me, What about the people who live here?

What do they do? What brought them here? Those questions spawned The Investment Club, about five broken people who meet at a blackjack table in downtown Vegas and discover the greatest return comes November 12 - 26, You mentioned teaching.

How did the foray into fiction come to bear fruit? I needed to get out of school as soon as possible and start experiencing life.

I taught a year in Ohio then followed a girl to St. From there it is was about trying to find the balance so I e ccould embrace the life experiences I was drawn toward, write about them and make ends meet.

All of which have opened up different parts of life that have fed into the writing, which has been the only constant. You were born in Sandusky.

Actually, there was never a plan to use my roots as the setting. I had moved to St. Louis at the time and never really planned on going back except to visit family, but, as so often happens, life had a different plan.

I had the summer off and it felt right, so I did it. Which, one supposes, is precisely the point. In he was selected to provide the moves for the Johnny Cash character in Guitar Hero 5.

He looks like Johnny. He sounds like Johnny. He moves like Johnny. It encompasses a blend of bluegrass, old time music, country, folk, blues, jazz, ragtime, and rockabilly.

After the release of their live album, the band signed with independent label Milan Records, which specializes in film scores and soundtracks.

In , they followed with an all-new album, Do Wrong Right. From these seemingly irreconcilable elements, the five members of Greensky Bluegrass have forged a defiant, powerful sound that, while rooted in classic stringband Americana, extends outwards with a fearless, exploratory zeal.

Since their first rumblings at the start of the millennium, they have emerged November 12 - 26, as relentless road warriors, creating a captivating live show while at the same time developing a knack for evocative, disarming songcraft.

The band is as blue collar as the bandanas its members wear. The track listing is: 1. The CMA wrap Just in case you were on a desert island or somewhere else far from civilization and the media, the following is a wrap up of the big winners.

This also was the fifth year in a row for Shelton. Bentley also performed the song during the show.

Brandy Clark and Shane McAnally. Mac McAnally received the honor of Musician of the Year for the seventh time.

With Musgraves sporting a partial beehive hairdo, they sang in an Opry-themed set. A few non-country acts performed as well. Miss the Mac in Columbus?

You can catch up with them in Cleveland in February. And twice as beautiful: Keyboardist Christine McVie is back.

The rest is rock and roll history. It remains one of the best-selling albums of all time, consistently topping magazine and radio lists of best-ever, musthear albums.

Warner Bros. Now in its sixth decade, Fleetwood Mac still thrives. Judging from approving roar resonating from the rafters and aisles, the Buckeye State was glad to have her.

The U. Silver-haired sexagenarians Fleetwood and McVie still comprise a formidable rhythm combo. The video backdrop hanging over the stage carried simulcast images from the show, so folks situated in back and up top could get an up-close glimpse at the headliners.

But the screen also projected film clips to accompany certain tunes. Visually, it made for a colorful, engaging spectacle, complementing the music without distracting from it.

Lovely, black-clad backup singers Sharon Celani, Lori Nicks, and Stevvi Alexander danced in unison on a platform at stage left, swaying in synch while lending their lush harmonies.

Beatles fans already know the words to most if not all of the songs. The author marvels how the band progressed in a relatively short time from simple skiffle music to Mentor Ave.

Indeed, Davies expounded no small effort assembling this hardbound, museum-caliber treasure trove of poesy, combining his own collection with that of other benefactors around the world like John Cage and overseeing their digital preservation by photographer Charlotte Knee.

We learn where each song was composed, who was present at the time, and what factors shaped any revisions made prior to recording.

Register now at cougar COM 20 www. The band released their third full-length album Even if It Kills Me in The album ddebuted at number 16 on the Billboard and number one on the Independent Albums chart.

It is their first album released oon Columbia, a major record label. A Artist Website: motioncitysoundtrack.

Dinner, Beer and Wine are included. Donations for items for the Chinese Auction baskets are also being accepted. Then the unthinkable happens.

Baby Dylan is taken from the hospital in the middle of the night by a woman posing to be a nurse. As the years pass, Charlee begins to doubt that she will ever see her child again.

Little does she know, her son, now named Ben, is as close, and elusive, as her next hit record. About the Author Deanna R.

Adams is a multi-published author of both fiction and nonfiction works. She lives in Northeast Ohio with her family.

Deanna is a writer, speaker, instructor, award-winning essayist and author of three nonfiction books. When it comes to Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression predisposed judgment, social stigma, labels, and assumptions are all considerably involved and at the same time increasing the difficulty within the process of emotional recovery and in healing.

The main reason I am focusing upon anxiety and depression the foremost diagnoses of which perceptual modification can be utilized and proven to be of the most effective and highly impacting is that they are the most common of ailments that have been experienced by the masses.

Almost everyone has encountered at least some form of depression or the many repeating cycles of one form of anxiety or another.

Some may still continue to experience the many combinations of how anxiety and depression may express itself collaboratively with how they are most able to approach such obstacles in emotion through some form of a cognitive adjustment, subconscious adaptation or perhaps by the acquirement of an unknown hereditary gene which freely expresses resiliency.

Then there are other means by which resiliency is obtained as well, besides the obvious physiological, this can be derived by the environmental, the energetic, and even from the more deepened realms of possibility - the morphogenetic.

On the other hand, there are those who have simply not been able to adjust. It is crucial. It is the one determining factor that can mean the ultimate path to legitimate recovery or in a discouraging stalemate to the challenging chess game of life.

Perception is reality. It is truly the one thing from within our lives that we can legitimately control. And this, indeed, ties in well with the legitimacy of belief.

I am a firm believer that if you truly and ultimately believe in one way or the other, whether it is based upon falsehood or facts, and perhaps even upon the negative or positive - the dualistic nature of things - you are literally one-hundred percent correct based upon your beliefs.

You are one-hundred percent true. You are the creator of your reality, from within your own world, from within your own beliefs, and from within your own thoughts.

The surprising paradox lies within the acknowledgement that the actual act of being right or wrong has nothing to do with this perceptual and psychological construct in descriptive identification.

If you believe that anything or any situation does in fact exist, well you are completely and exactly correct - from within your own level of understanding.

Now, to the contrary of what that particular belief is, its polar opposite, believers of this paradigm are also one-hundred percent correct as well.

We essentially create the very world that we exist in, within the current now, through our very observations - our perceptions.

It is almost impossible to control the actions of others or even to manipulate the flow of how things can fluently pan out within our environments from amidst the so-called unpredictable landscape.

Control, within the same notion, is often the one main concern that leads to emotional strife; if we are unable to coral and domesticate this it is often times an elusive and misleading expectation.

The only control that we truly possess lies from within the choices we make and how we observe the people all around us through non-judgement , our environments externally through emotional non-reaction and in ourselves from the calm within.

Many of the remarkable discoveries uncovered from the world of Quantum Mechanics is obtained at the unseen, the minuscule, and at the most subatomic of levels where neither of the five known senses can be utilized efficiently to successfully assess and observe from the traditional view of things.

Their discoveries have found that a system acts independently within itself until it is physically observed by the viewer which is you, the observer.

How are we to know that we possess the tools to create an existence into a desired reality unless we are entirely aware that we do, in fact, possess such a tool?

Let alone believe from within our psyche or belief system that it is indeed a legitimate application to be utilized as one approach to the common dilemmas and extreme stressors of our lives.

Unfortunately, we are unable to do so, unless we have evolved consciously to the next higher state of awareness through self-education and in self-actualization beyond the traditional sense of how we have been conditioned to be.

The premise of this article is based upon the notion that we, as human beings, can entirely empower ourselves in guiding the direction of our lives through the Power of Perceptual Modification.

From what can be observed in view to what can be perceived from interpretation, we often make our assessments in life based upon a dualistic nature of things.

Duality plays a large and considerable role in how things are perceived and interpreted. Why are things considered Right and Wrong?

Black or White? Tall and short? Up or Down? Good and Bad? Left or Right? Healthy and Sick? By utilizing adjectives to describe the nature of a demoralizing act, the denigrating nature or behavior exerted by a specific person, or perhaps with even the negative connotation of a less inspiring situation, emphasis upon the negative energies placed upon a person, place, or thing only empowers the strength of its potency.

We give the negativity its life. We subconsciously heighten its demoralizing nature through worry and anxiety-ridden woe which leads to furthering depression and constant grief.

Well, one must begin through the stages of mindfulness and awareness first of all that sends him or her to the higher levels of consciousness where one shall acknowledge the fact that change is not only desired within their lives, but required within the process of their healing.

The key lies from within our current state of awareness in whether we are choosing to either focus our attention or inner light towards the limitations of the ego or into limitlessness of the inner makings of our hearts.

The choice is up to you. Essentially, we must modify the ways in how we view and perceive ourselves to be, the world and our specified environments, and in the ways we interpret and believe on how the world views us back in return.

This is very important. This determines our realities - believe it or not. Again, perception is key. Observation is significant.

To the bare naked eyes, we see nothing. But when observed and assessed at the subatomic level, there is essentially potentiality.

And in how this potentiality integrates and conforms to the very make-up of our physioanatomies, according to well-renown Quantum Physicist Rupert Sheldrake, is determined by how our genes and chromosomes interact integrally and synergistically to that Unified Field.

He has been practicing within the specialized nursing field of Behavioral Health as a Registered Nurse for nearly eleven years within the Cleveland, Ohio area.

His inspirational work through the application and instruction of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Positive Psychology, Quantum Mechanics, and HeartCentered Research-Based Science towards populations among vast and widening socioeconomic scope, the mentally ill, the homeless, victims of substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and depression has earned him several awards and recognitions within the field of nursing.

Compassionate people. Kind people. Responsible people. Caring people. Honest people. Today, I see consciousness.

I see loyalty. There is overall stability ity in the lives of many. People are basically good, and good-hearted. Where is the joy?

In striving for perfectionism in all of the aforementioned qualities, peoplee have foregone joy. There is no joy in their striving.

There are no smiles. How odd. Is it odd to you? Or has it become the status quo? Take a look the next time you are in the grocery check-out aisle.

Do people look happy to you? Where is the joie de vivre--the joy of living--an exultation of spirit? After all, joy raises vibration, allowing us once again, to raise the vibration of the world, just by showing up in it.

Do you know incidentally, that the mind cannot sustain a negative thought, while you are smiling? That simple. Feeling down?

Smiling releases oxytocin. Hugging releases oxytocin. Cradling a baby releases oxytocin. Walking in the woods releases oxytocin. Listening to music releases oxytocin.

Walking on the beach releases oxytocin. All forms of art--whether the practice of it or the creating of it-- produces oxytocin. The act of watching someone else experience happiness, releases oxytocin--even if the happiness has nothing to do with you.

When is the last time you saw someone mope at a wedding? We are joy-deprived. One of the reasons for this is that often those who choose a holistic lifestyle think that everything can be supplemented by diet choices.

This is not entirely true. The hormone production in our brains and in our bodies are more often, based in choice and habit.

People are in the habit of thinking negatively. No joy in that. We are in the habit of fearing life, and our fears are fed--consistently--throughout our days.

We are encouraged to fear. Where is the joie de vivre in that? We are killing ourselves--not through lack of care--but lack of joy.

Ask someone what they do to take care of themselves, and they will cover everything from eating right, to going for medical check-ups. And yet, the one single thing, most likely to secure our selfpreservation and improve the world around us, is the sense of joy.

And the cool thing is that we get to take it wherever we go and it is very cost-effective. I recall an ages old philosophy that lack of facial expression reduces lines in the face.

The basic assumption of Internet protocol design and implementation was that people would be reasonable; to assume otherwise runs the risk of hobbling it in just the way the proprietary networks were hobbled.

The vision is not a pleasant one, even though it may come about naturally through market demand. The solutions to the generative dilemma will rest on social and legal innovation as much as on technical innovation, and the best guideposts can be found in other generative successes in those arenas.

Those successes have faced similar challenges resulting from too much openness, and many have overcome them without abandoning generativity through solutions that inventively combine technical and social elements.

In Part II I drill down a bit more into this concept of generativity. What is it? What does it mean? Where do we see it? Why is it good?

This trend threatens to curtail future innovation and to facilitate invasive forms of surveillance and control.

A non-generative information ecosystem advances the regulability of the Internet to a stage that goes beyond addressing discrete regulatory problems, instead allowing regulators to alter basic freedoms that previously needed no theoretical or practical defense.

Some principles jump out: Our information technology ecosystem functions best with generative technology at its core.

A mainstream dominated by non-generative systems will harm innovation as well as some important individual freedoms and opportunities for self-expression.

However, generative and non-generative models are not mutually exclusive. They can compete and intertwine within a single system.

Moreover, even if they occupy a more minor role in the mainstream, non-generative technologies still have valuable roles to serve. But they develop best when they can draw on the advances of generative systems.

Generativity instigates a pattern both within and beyond the technological layers of the information technology ecosystem.

This book has so far described a trajectory for the generative Internet and PC, which begins in a backwater, accepts contribution from many quarters, experiences extraordinary success and unexpected mainstream adoption, and then encounters new and serious problems precisely because of that success.

These problems can pose a lethal threat to generative systems by causing people to transform them into, or abandon them for, sterile alternatives.

Moreover, the generative pattern of boom, bust, and possible renewal is not unique to technologies. It can also be found in generative expressive and social systems built with the help of those technologies.

Generative systems are not inherently selfsustaining when confronted with these challenges. We should draw lessons from instances in which such systems have survived and apply these lessons to problems arising within generative systems in other layers.

Good applications can then be adopted widely while bad ones are ignored. The hourglass portrays two important design insights. First is the notion that the network can be carved into conceptual layers.

The exact number of layers varies depending on who is drawing the hourglass and why,1 and even by chapter of this book.

By dividing the network into layers and envisioning some boundaries among them, the path is clear to a division of labor among people working to improve the overall network.

Tinkerers can work on one layer without having to understand much about the others, and there need not be any coordination or relationship between those working at one layer and those at another.

For example, someone can write a new application like an instant messenger without having to know anything about whether its users will be connected to the network by modem or broadband.

And an ISP can upgrade the speed of its Internet service without having to expect the authors of instant messenger programs to rewrite them to account for the new speed: the adjustment happens naturally.

Layers facilitate polyarchies, and the proprietary networks were hierarchies. As a technical matter, anyone could become part of the network by bringing a data-carrying wire or radio wave to the party.

Thus, wireless Internet access points could be developed by outsiders without any changes required to Internet Protocol: the Protocol embodied so few assumptions about the nature of the medium used that going wireless did not violate any of them.

The large variety of ways of physically connecting is represented by the broad base to the hourglass.

Similarly, the framers of Internet Protocol made few assumptions about the ultimate uses of the network. They merely provided a scheme for packaging and moving data, whatever its purpose.

Thus, the top of the hourglass is also broad. It is only the middle that is narrow, containing Internet Protocol, because it is meant to be as feature-free as possible.

It simply describes how to move data, and its basic parameters have evolved slowly over the years. This same quality is found within traditional PC architecture.

It greatly facilitates the way that the overall network operates, although those joining the debate on Internet openness have largely ignored this quality.

Operating system designers like Microsoft and Apple have embraced the procrastination principle of their counterparts in Internet network design.

Their operating systems, as well as Unix and its variants, are intentionally incomplete; they were built to allow users to install new code written by third parties.

Such code could entirely revise the way a computer operates, which gives individuals other than the original designers the capacity to solve new problems and redirect the purposes of PCs.

The PC can run code from a broad number of sources, and it can be physically placed into any number and style of physical chassis from many sources, at least as a technical matter.

Sometimes the operating system maker may object as a strategic and legal matter: Apple, for example, has with few exceptions 69 70 After the Stall Figure 4.

For the inputs, how much the system facilitates audience contribution is a function of both technological design and social behavior.

Leverage is not exclusively a feature of generative systems; non-generative, specialized technologies can provide leverage for their designated tasks.

Both PCs and network technologies have proven very leveraging. A typical PC operating system handles many of the chores that the author of an application would otherwise have to worry about, and properly implemented Internet Protocol sees to it that bits of data move from one place to another without application authors having to worry on either end.

A given instrumentality may be highly leveraging yet suited only to a limited range of applications. A plowshare enables one to plant a variety of seeds; however, its comparative leverage quickly vanishes when devoted to other tasks such as holding doors open.

The same goes for swords they really make poor plowshares , guns, chairs, band saws, and even airplanes. Adaptability is clearly a spectrum.

But one can still probably count 71 72 After the Stall the kinds of uses for an airplane on two hands. The emphasis here is on uses not anticipated at the time the technology was developed.

A thick Swiss Army knife may have plenty of built-in tools compared with a simple pocket knife, but many of those are highly specialized.

The skills required to understand many otherwise generative technologies are often not very readily absorbed. Many technologies require apprenticeships, formal training, or many hours of practice if one is to become conversant in them.

Of course, the skills necessary to operate certain technologies, rather than modify them, are often more quickly acquired. For example, many quickly understand how to drive a car, an understanding probably assisted by user-friendly inventions such as the automatic transmission.

Ease of mastery also refers to the ease with which various types of people might deploy and adapt a given technology, even if their skills fall short of full mastery.

A pencil is easily mastered: it takes a moment to understand and put to many uses, even though it might require a lifetime of practice and innate artistic talent to achieve Da Vincian levels of leverage from it.

The more useful a technology is both to the neophyte and to the expert, the more generative it is.

PCs and network technologies are not easy for everyone to master, yet many people are able to learn how to code, often or especially without formal training.

Accessibility: The easier it is to obtain access to a technology, along with the tools and information necessary to achieve mastery of it, the more generative it The Generative Pattern is.

Barriers to accessibility can include the sheer expense of producing and therefore consuming the technology, taxes, regulations associated with its adoption or use, and the secrecy its producers adopt to maintain scarcity or control.

Measured by accessibility, paper, plowshares, and guns are highly accessible, planes hardly at all, and cars somewhere in between.

Measured by the same factors, scooters and bicycles are more accessible, while snowplows are less so. Standard PCs are very accessible; they come in a wide range of prices, and in a few keystrokes or mouse-clicks one can be ready to write new code for them.

Transferability: Transferability indicates how easily changes in the technology can be conveyed to others.

The PC and the Internet together possess very strong transferability: a program written in one place can be shared with, and replicated by, tens of millions of other machines in a matter of moments.

Achieving the same result requires manually wiring a new kit to look like the old one, which makes the project kit less generative.

For example, on camping trips, Swiss Army knives are ideal. Luggage space is often at a premium, and such a tool will be useful in a range of expected and even unexpected situations.

And the absence of one of these factors may prevent a technology from being generative. For example, while some enjoy tinkering in home workshops, making small birdhouses using wood and a saw, most cannot build their own boats or decks, much less pass those creations on to others.

Similarly, there are plenty of examples of technology that is easy to master and is quite adaptable, but lacks leverage.

Table 4. Views on these categories or particular examples will undoubtedly vary, but some themes emerge. In general, generative tools are more basic and less specialized for accomplishing a particular purpose; these qualities make such tools more usable for many tasks.

Generative tools are individually useful. Generative systems are sets of tools and practices that develop among large groups of people.

Hammers can be used for a greater variety of activities. They are more adaptable and accessible, and they are easier to master. Square tiles of different colors can be laid out in a variety of different patterns.

Dice and playing cards are building blocks for any number of games. Board games are generally specialized for playing only one particular game.

All, however are accessible: just as with dice and playing cards, one could make up entirely new rules for Monopoly using its board, game pieces, and money.

A dollhouse facilitates variety in play by its users. Compared with a board game, a dollhouse is thus a more generative toy. Many variants on traditional games involve chess and checkers.

The pieces can also be generalized to create different games. See, e. Interestingly, one of them is decidedly not patching ducts.

Knives have greater versatility to tasks besides peeling, as well as greater adaptability for uses outside cooking. Generally, toasters are dedicated to heating bread.

An electric stove can be adapted for that task as well as for many other meals. Even a traditional coffeemaker is limited to making coffee.

A kettle, however, can be used to heat water for use in any number of hot drinks or meals, such as oatmeal or soup. Dumbbells can be combined for a variety of regimens.

An exercise machine is safer, however, and perhaps less intimidating to new users. Prepared sushi may be less accessible due to its price.

Rice and salt are staple foods that are easier to add and use in a variety of dishes. It is related to other conceptions of information technology and, to some degree, draws upon their meanings.

The Free Software Philosophy The normative ideals of the free software movement and the descriptive attributes of generativity have much in common.

Put into our terms, accessibility is a core value. When the free software approach works, it helps to expand the audiences capable of building software, and it increases the range of outputs the system generates.

While generativity has some things in common with the free software approach, it is not the same. Free software can also lack the accessibility associated with generativity.

TiVo is built on Linux, which is licensed as free software, but, while the code is publicly published, it is nearly impossible for the Linux PC inside a TiVo to run anything but the code that TiVo designates for it.

A ball might be thrown; a chair might be sat on. Generativity shares some of this outlook. Instead, it takes one object at a time and delineates its possible or likely uses.

Such tailoring is more consistent with the development of appliancized systems than with generative ones. Generativity considers how a system might grow or change over time as the uses of a technology by one group are shared with other individuals, thereby extending the generative platform.

Theories of the Commons Generativity also draws from recent scholarship about the commons. Other scholars have undertaken an economic analysis of the commons.

As the next chapter explains, the endpoints have at least as much of a role to play. Values, of course, vary from one person and stakeholder to the next.

A generative system can be judged from both within the system and outside 79 80 After the Stall of it. The development and distribution of a generic installer program for a PC, which makes it easy for other software authors to bundle their work so that users can easily install and use it, is an example of a generative system producing an internally good change, because it makes the system more generative.

Generative outputs can also be judged as good or bad by reference to external values. When users pay for products or services in one way or another, those who control the products or services amid competition are responsive to their desires through market pressure.

The telephone system was stable and predictable; its uses evolved slowly if at all from its inception in the late nineteenth century.

It was designed to facilitate conversations between two people at a distance, and with some important exceptions, that is all it has done. The change it has wrought for society is, of course, enormous, but the contours of that change were known and set once there was a critical mass of telephones distributed among the general public.

Indeed, given how revolutionary a telephone system is to a society without one, it is striking that the underlying technology and its uses have seen only a handful of variations since its introduction.

We saw a similar pattern as the Internet overtook proprietary networks that did not even realize it was a competitor.

By contrast, the proprietary networks of CompuServe, AOL, Prodigy, and Minitel were out beating the bushes for content, arranging to provide it through the straightforward economic model of being paid by people who would spend connect time browsing it.

Instead, any improvements were orchestrated centrally. For those who wish to code new applications to run on the increasingly powerful computers embedded within the phones, the barriers to contribution are high.

And the virtual The Generative Pattern machines run slowly, eliminating leverage. These factors persist despite competition among several carriers.

He has studied innovation within the publishing industries, and has found cultural barriers to it across studios and record companies.

We have to act in a rational and cautious fashion, no matter how much potential new markets like the Internet have.

Moving slow, and making clear, safe progress is the mantra. In it, market leaders tended to be very good at quickly and successfully adopting some technological advancements, yet were entirely left behind by upstarts.

It is with disruptive innovations that the market leaders will lag behind. These innovations are not in the path of what the company is already doing well.

Recall that Tasmanian amateur coder Peter Tattam saw the value of integrating Internet support into Windows before Microsoft did, and that the low cost of replicating his work meant that millions of users could adopt it even if they did not know how to program computers themselves.

When interest gets big enough, companies can then step in to smooth out the rough edges and fully commercialize the innovation.

Von Hippel has compiled an extensive catalog of user innovation. He points to examples like farmers who roped a bicycle-like contraption to some PVC Figure 4.

The IV bag system has since been adopted by large manufacturers and is now produced for hikers and soldiers. The adults quickly hacked the Lego engines and made them better.

Generative systems and technologies are more inviting to disruptive innovation thanks to their leverage, adaptability, ease of mastery, and accessibility, and they make it easier for their fruits to spread.

Yet when people and institutions other than the incumbents have an opportunity to create and distribute new uses as is possible in a generative system, the results can outclass what is produced through traditional channels.

For mature technologies, perhaps generativity is not as important: the remaining leaps, such as that which allows transistors to be placed closer and closer together on a chip over time without fundamentally changing the things the chip can do, 87 88 After the Stall will come from exploitative innovation or will necessitate well-funded research through institutional channels.

The power of wikis and blogs comes from the fact that nothing quite like them existed before, and that they are so readily adopted by Internet users intrigued by their use.

The genius behind such innovations is truly inspiration rather than perspiration, a bit of tinkering with a crazy idea rather than a carefully planned and executed invention responding to clear market demand.

Due to the limitations of the unconnected PC, one could credibly claim that its uses were more or less known by word processing, spreadsheets, databases, games.

We have thus settled into a landscape in which both amateurs and professionals as well as small- and large-scale ventures contribute to major innovations.

Generativity, then, is a parent of invention, and an open network connecting generative devices makes the fruits of invention easy to share if the inventor is so inclined.

This invitation occurs at two levels: the individual act of contribution itself, and the ways in which that contribution becomes part of a self-reinforcing community.

This is a value best appreciated by experiencing it; those who demand proof may not be easy to persuade. Fortunately, there are many ways in which people have a chance to build and contribute.

Many jobs demand intellectual engagement, which can be fun for its own sake. People take joy in rearing children: teaching, interacting, guiding.

They can also immerse themselves in artistic invention or software coding. Famed utilitarian John Stuart Mill may have believed in the greatest happiness for the greatest number, but he was also a champion of the individual and a hater of custom.

The same things which are helps to one person towards the cultivation of his higher nature are hindrances to another.

The same mode of life is a healthy excitement to one, keeping all his faculties of action and enjoyment in their best order, while to another it is a distracting burthen, which suspends or crushes all internal life.

In addition, much of that software is geared toward making political and artistic expression easier. It adds to the centralized, market-oriented production system a new framework of radically decentralized individual and cooperative nonmarket production.

It makes culture more transparent to its inhabitants. It makes the process of cultural production more participatory, in the sense that more of those who live within a culture can actively participate in its creation.

We are seeing the possibility of an emergence of a new popular culture, produced on the folk-culture model and inhabited actively, rather than passively consumed by the masses.

The practice of producing culture makes us all more sophisticated readers, viewers, and listeners, as well as more engaged makers. An ability to participate in the making of culture is seen to be as paramount to full citizenship as the traditionally narrower activities of engaging in direct political debate or discussion of pressing policy issues.

William Fisher has noted a similar potential in his discussion of semiotic democracy, a media studies concept drawn from the work of John Fiske.

Instead of being merely passive consumers of images and artifacts produced by others, they would help shape the world of ideas and symbols in which they live.

Laundry that took a day to do can now be done in an hour or two. But leverage alone, if packaged in a way that does not allow adaptation, is not generative.

It threatens conformity. The more there are prescribed ways to do something, the more readily people fall into identical patterns.

However, the regularity needed to produce consistent sandwiches and talks can actively discourage or prevent creativity.

That drives critics of technology like Neil Postman, author of such evocatively titled books as Building a Bridge to the 18th Century 70 and Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology,71 to argue that the ascendance of engineering and information technology is making sheep of us.

However, this understanding of technology stops at those systems that are built once, originating elsewhere, and then imposed or even eagerly snapped up by everyone else, who then cannot change them and thus become prisoners to them.

It need not be that way. But they are combinable into any number of new forms as soon as the user feels ready to do more than what the box instructs.

The PC and the Internet have been just the same in that way. The divide is not between technology and nontechnology, but between hierarchy and polyarchy.

In polyarchies, many ideas can be pursued independently. Hierarchical systems appear better at nipping dead-end ideas in the bud, but they do so at the expense of crazy ideas that just might work.

More importantly, they allow many more people to have a hand at contributing to the system, regardless of the quality of the contribution.

We can call this recursive generativity, repeated up through the layers of the hourglass. Mozart might have turned to painting if there were no musical instruments for which to compose, but there is no particular reason to believe that his paintings would be as good among the work of painters as his music is judged to be among that of musicians.

New technologies welcome new groups of people who may excel at manipulating them. People can work alone or in groups. Working in groups has practical limitations.

It is typically not easy to collaborate from far away. The combination of networks and PCs, however, has made it particularly easy to arrange such collaborations.

Itself an open source project, CVS permits users to establish a virtual library of the code they are working on, checking out various pieces to work on and then checking them back in for others to use.

People with complementary talents who otherwise would not have known or met each other, much less found a way to collaborate without much logistical friction, can be brought together to work on a project.

Creativity, then, is enhanced not only for individuals, but also for groups as distinct entities, thanks to the linkage of the PC and the Internet.

A signal example of both recursive and group generativity can be found in the wiki. Software consultant Ward Cunningham was intrigued by the ways in which strangers might collaborate online.

With few exceptions anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry at any time. Wikipedia stands at the apex of amateur endeavor: an undertaking done out of sheer interest in or love of a topic, built on collaborative software that enables a breathtakingly comprehensive result that is the sum of individual contributions, and one that is extraordinarily trusting of them.

Rather, they foment change. They solicit the distributed intellectual power of humanity to harness the leveraging power of the product or system for new applications, and, if they are The Generative Pattern adaptable enough, such applications may be quite unexpected.

It would contain chemicals that could accomplish a variety of tasks, with small quantities adding up to big results if the user so desired.

It would also be easy to master: children would be able to learn how to use it. But such generativity would have a manifest downside risk: a chemical accident could be dangerous to the child or even to the entire neighborhood.

The same principle applies to gene splicing kits, atom smashers, and many of the power tools at a local hardware store. The more experimentation allowed, the more harm the tool invites.

None of the industrial giants of yore are taking this reallocation lying down. The technology will not overcome their resistance through an insurmountable progressive impulse.

Mill in part reconciled his embrace of individual rights with his utilitarian recognition of the need for limits to freedom by conceding that there are times where regulation is called for.

In some early states of society, these forces might be, and were, too much ahead of the power which society then possessed of disciplining and controlling them.

There has been a time when the element of spontaneity and individuality was in excess, and the social principle had a hard struggle with it.

Things are vastly changed, since the passions of those who were strong by station or by personal endowment were in a state of habitual rebellion against laws and ordinances, and required to be rigorously The Generative Pattern chained up to enable the persons within their reach to enjoy any particle of security.

In our times, from the highest class of society down to the lowest every one lives as under the eye of a hostile and dreaded censorship.

Who pays for what? Who shares what? And one well-crafted virus can take down millions of machines.

An idea originates in a backwater. It is ambitious but incomplete. It is partially implemented and released anyway, embracing the ethos of the procrastination principle.

This complacency is not sustainable in the long term because it ignores the harm that accrues to those who cannot defend themselves against network mischief the way that technologically sophisticated users can.

It fails to appreciate that the success of the Internet and PC has created a set of valid interests beyond that of experimentation.

In the next chapter, we will see how the most natural reactions to the generative problem of excess spontaneity and individuality will be overreactions, threatening the entire generative basis of the Net and laying the groundwork for the hostile and dreaded censorship that Mill decried.

In particular, a failure to solve generative problems at the technical layer will result in outcomes that allow for unwanted control at the content and social layers.

Then we will turn to solutions: ways in which, as the vibrant information society matures, we can keep problems in check while retaining the vital spark that drives it, and us, to new heights.

The most likely reactions to PC and Internet failures brought on by the proliferation of bad code, if they are not forestalled, will be at least as unfortunate as the problems themselves.

The ongoing communication between this new generation of devices and their vendors assures users that functionality and security improvements can be made as new problems are found.

To further facilitate glitch-free operation, devices are built to allow no one but the vendor to change them. Users are also now able to ask for the appliancization of their own PCs, in the process forfeiting the ability to easily install new code themselves.

In a development reminiscent of the old days of AOL and CompuServe, it After the Stall is increasingly possible to use a PC as a mere dumb terminal to access Web sites with interactivity but with little room for tinkering.

New information appliances that are tethered to their makers, including PCs and Web sites refashioned in this mold, are tempting solutions for frustrated consumers and businesses.

None of these solutions, standing alone, is bad, but the aggregate loss will be enormous if their emergence represents a wholesale shift of our information ecosystem away from generativity.

Some are skeptical that a shift so large can take place. It discounts the power of fear should the existing system falter under the force of particularly well-written malware.

The fundamental problem arises from too much functionality in the hands of users who may not exercise it wisely: even the safest Volvo can be driven into a wall.

People are frustrated by PC kinks and the erratic behavior they produce. Such unexpected variations in performance have long been smoothed out in refrigerators, televisions, mobile phones, and automobiles.

Worse, the increasing reliance on the PC and Internet that suggests momentum in their use means that more is at risk when something goes wrong.

It is enough to search for alternative architectures. The capacity for the types of disruptive innovation discussed in the previous chapter will not be the only casualty.

A shift to tethered appliances also entails a sea change in the regulability of the Internet.

With tethered appliances, the dangers of excess come not from rogue third-party code, but from the much more predictable interventions by regulators into the devices themselves, and in turn into the ways that people can use the appliances.

It invites regulatory intervention that disrupts a wise equilibrium that depends upon regulators acting with a light touch, as they traditionally have done within liberal societies.

In August , the court issued the following ruling: Defendants are hereby. The judicial logic for such an order is drawn from fundamental contraband rules: under certain circumstances, if an article infringes on intellectual prop- After the Stall erty rights, it can be impounded and destroyed.

The system periodically phones home to EchoStar, asking for updated programming for its internal software.

To do so requires EchoStar only to load its central server with an update that kills EchoStar DVRs when they check in for new features.

As of this writing, TiVo v. EchoStar is pending appeal on other grounds. In , a U. EchoStar and PlayMedia v. AOL broach the strange and troubling issues that arise from the curious technological hybrids that increasingly populate the digital world.

These hybrids mate the simplicity and reliability of television-like appliances with the privileged power of the vendor to reprogram those appliances over a network.

Restrictions can be enforced by the way a piece of software operates. A change in technology can change the power dynamic between those who promulgate the law and those who are subject to it.

Lessig and others have worried greatly about such potential changes, fearing that blunderbuss technology regulation by overeager regulators will intrude on the creative freedom of technology makers and the civic freedoms of those who use the technology.

Even if someone is unafraid to turn a radio tuning knob or dial a telephone number to the outside world, radio broadcasts can be jammed, and phone connections can be disabled or monitored.

Because radios and telephones are not generative, such jamming cannot be circumvented. North Korea has gone even further with endpoint lockdown.

The shift toward non-generative endpoint technology driven by consumer security worries of the sort described in this book changes the equation.

Tethered appliances belong to a new class of technology. They are appliances in that they are easy to use, while not easy to tinker with.

They are tethered because it is easy for their vendors to change them from afar, long after the devices have left warehouses and showrooms.

Updates come from only one source, with a model of product development limited to non-user innovation. These boxes thus resemble the early proprietary information services like CompuServe and AOL, Perfect Enforcement for which only the service providers could add new features.

Yet tethered appliances are much more powerful than traditional appliances. Under the old regime, a toaster, once purchased, remains a toaster.

Buy a record and it can be played as many times as the owner wants. Appliances become contingent: rented instead of owned, even if one pays up front for them, since they are subject to instantaneous revision.

A continuing connection to a producer paves the way for easier postacquisition improvements: the modern equivalent of third slots for old toasters.

That sounds good: more features, instantly distributed. So what is the drawback? One answer is that they may be compelled to do so.

When code is law, however, execution is exquisite, and law can be self-enforcing. The TiVo v. This remote remedy was practicable because the tethering allowed the devices to be completely reprogrammed, even though the initial design of the EchoStar device had not anticipated a patent infringement judgment.

These remedies can apply to some units and not others, allowing regulators to winnow out bad uses from good ones on the basis of individual adjudication, rather than rely on the generalities of ex ante legislative-style drafting.

In a world of old-fashioned televisions and VCRs, or PCs and peer-topeer networks, the broadcaster or creator could be sued, but anyone who recorded the broadcast could, as a practical matter, retain a copy.

This control extends beyond any particular content medium: as e-book devices become popular, the same excisions could be performed for print materials.

Surveillance Tethered appliances have the capacity to relay information about their uses back to the manufacturer. Tethered appliances take this knowledge a step further, recording what we do with the appliances even in transactions that have nothing to do with the vendor.

It knows when someone replays some scenes and skips others. Mobile phones can be reprogrammed at a distance, allowing their microphones to be secretly turned on even when the phone is powered down.

All ambient noise and conversation can then be continuously picked up and relayed back to law enforcement authorities, regardless of whether the phone is being used for a call.

Such surveillance could be introduced through a targeted update from the OS maker or from any other provider of software running on the machine.

Surveillance need not be limited to targeted eavesdropping that is part of a criminal or civil investigation. A Net-wide search could be instigated that would inventory connected machines and report back when smoking guns were found.

Tethering makes these approaches practicable and inexpensive for regulators. If one could wave a wand and make it impossible for people to kill each other, there might seem little reason to hesitate.

Those with undiluted libertarian values might oppose easier enforcement of laws as a general matter, because they believe that self-defense is the best solution to harm by others, especially within a medium that carries bits, not bullets.

For example, defamatory speech might be met not by a lawsuit for money damages or an injunction requiring deletion of the lies, but rather by more speech that corrects the record.

One can also argue against stronger enforcement regimes by objecting to the laws that will be enforced. Similarly, those who believe in lower taxes might object to a plan that makes it easier for intermediaries to collect and remit use and sales taxes for online transactions.

The drawback to arguing generally against perfect enforcement because one objects to the laws likely to be enforced is that it preaches to the choir.

To persuade those who are more favorably disposed to enforcement of substantive laws using tethered appliances, we must look to other objections.

Portability and Enforceability Without the Rule of Law While it might be understandable that those opposed to a substantive law would also favor continued barriers to its enforcement, others might say that the price of living under the rule of law is that law ought to be respected, even if one disagrees with it.

But not every society operates according to a framework of laws that are democratically promulgated and then enforced by an independent judiciary.

In a world where tethered appliances dominate, the cat-and-mouse game tilts toward the cat. For example, the PC telephone program Skype is not amenable to third-party changes and is tethered to Skype for its updates.

Because it is often less obvious to users and the wider world, the ability to enforce quietly using qualities of the technology itself is worrisome.

Technologies that lend themselves to an easy and tightly coupled expression of governmental power simply will be portable from one society to the next.

If one objects to censorship in societies that have not developed the rule of law, one can support the maintenance of a generative core in information technology, minimizing the opportunities for some societies that wish to exploit the information revolution to discover new tools for control.

Gaps in translation may also arise between a legal mandate and its technological manifestation. This is especially true when technological design is used as a preemptive measure.

Under U. However, if we migrate to an information ecosystem in which tethered appliances predominate, that analog safety valve will wane.

If cats can easily be put back into bags, there can be less worry about letting them out to begin with. Preventing the copying of a work of copyrighted music stops a behavior without removing the work from the public sphere, since presumably the work is still available through authorized channels.

In ruling against a gag order at a trial, the U. To be sure, we can think of cases where complete elimination would be ideal.

These are cases in which the public interest is not implicated, and for which continued harm is thought to accrue so long as the material circulates: leaked medical records, child abuse images, and nuclear weapon designs.

Imagine a world in which all copies of once-censored books like Candide, The Call of the Wild, and Ulysses had been permanently destroyed at the time of the censoring and could not be studied or enjoyed after subsequent decision-makers lifted the ban.

The use of tethered appliances for surveillance may be least susceptible to an objection of mistake, since surveillance can be used to start a case rather than close it.

Moreover, since running a red light might cause an accident and result in physical harm, the cameras seem well-tailored to dealing with a true hazard, and thus less objectionable.

And the mechanization of identifying violators might even make the system more fair, because the occupant of the vehi- Perfect Enforcement cle cannot earn special treatment based on individual characteristics like race, wealth, or gender.

The prospects for abuse are greater when the cameras in mobile phones or the microphones of OnStar can be serendipitously repurposed for surveillance.

These sensors are much more invasive and general purpose. At present, most reported decisions and scholarly authority favor the former interpretation, but the momentum may be shifting.

Translated into a more formal and precise claim, one might worry that the boundless but unnoticeable searches permitted by digital advances can be as disruptive to the equilibrium between citizen and law enforcement as any enforcement-thwarting tools such as encryption.

The equilibrium between citizens and law enforcement has crucially relied on some measure of citizen cooperation.

For example, the previously mentioned FBI use of an OnStar-like system to listen in on the occupants of a car is public knowledge only because the manufacturer chose to formally object.

It removes a practical check on the use of that power. A government able to pressure the provider of BlackBerries could insist on surveillance of e-mails sent to and from each device.

Traditionally, ongoing mass surveillance or control would require a large investment of resources and, in particular, people. Eavesdropping has required police willing to plant and monitor bugs; seizure of contraband has required agents willing to perform raids.

Further, a great deal of routine law enforcement activity has required the cooperation of private parties, such as landlords, banks, and employers.

The latter encourages the proliferation of simple punishmentavoiding behavior that is anathema to open, participatory societies.

If they decide they do object, they can sue. When Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of DMCA ,85 it sought to enlist certain online service providers to help stop the unauthorized spread of copyrighted material.

ISPs that just routed packets for others were declared not responsible for copyright infringement taking place over their communication channels.

Thanks to the incentives of notice-and-takedown, copyright holders gained a ready means of redress for the most egregious instances of copyright infringement, without chilling individual expression across the board in the process.

The DMCA legal regime supports the procrastination principle, allowing for experimentation of all sorts and later reining in excesses and abuses as they happen, rather than preventing them from the outset.

Companies are not monolithic, and there can be dissenting views within a company on the matter. A company with such diverse internal voices cannot come right out and give an even temporary blessing to apparent copyright infringement.

Such a blessing would cure the material in question of its unlawful character, because the infringement would then be authorized.

Yet at the same time, a copyright holder may be loath to issue DMCA notices to try to get material removed each time it appears, because clips can serve a valuable promotional function.

People might make videos that include copyrighted background music or television show clips and upload them to centralized video sharing services like YouTube.

A preemptive intervention to preclude some particular behavior actually disempowers the people who might complain about it to decide that they are willing, after all, to tolerate it.

Few would choose to tolerate a murder, making it a good candidate for preemption through design, were that possible,91 but the intricacies of the markets and business models involved in the distribution of intellectual works means that reasonable copyright holders could disagree on whether it would be a good thing to prevent certain unauthorized distributions of their works.

The generative history of the Internet shows that allowing openness to third- Perfect Enforcement party innovation from multiple corners and through multiple business models or no business model at all ends up producing widely adopted, socially useful applications not readily anticipated or initiated through the standard corporate production cycle.

The entire video rental industry was not anticipated by publishers, yet it became a substantial source of revenue for them. BitTorrent software ensures that people upload to others as they download, which means that the BBC will be able to release its programs online without incurring the costs of a big bandwidth bill because many viewers will be downloading from fellow viewers rather than from the BBC.

Users can click on nearly any text or graphic they see and promptly copy it to their own Web sites or save it permanently on their own PCs.

The legal theories that make these activities possible are tenuous. Is it an implied license from the Web site owner? Perhaps, but what if the Web site owner has introductory text that demands that no copies like that be made?

A gap between deployment and regulatory reaction gives the economic and legal systems time to adapt, helping to ensure that doctrines like fair use are applied appropriately.

The Undesirable Collapse of Conduct and Decision Rules Law professor Meir Dan-Cohen describes law as separately telling people how to behave and telling judges what penalties to impose should people break the law.

In more general terms, he has observed that law comprises both conduct rules and decision rules. Part of what makes us human are the choices that we make every day about what counts as right and wrong, and whether to give in to temptations that we believe to be wrong.

In a completely monitored and controlled environment, those choices vanish. This is just the sort of calculus by which prior restraints are disfavored especially when they attach to speech, rather than when they are used to prevent lawbreaking behaviors such as those that lead to physical harm.

If most of the abuses sought to be prevented are well addressed through post hoc remedies, and if they might be adequately discovered through existing law enforcement mechanisms, one should disfavor perfect enforcement to preempt them.

At the Perfect Enforcement very least, the prospect of abuse of powerful, asymmetric law enforcement tools reminds us that there is a balance to be struck rather than an unmitigated good in perfect enforcement.

WEB 2. The new system was compromised just as quickly; instructions quickly circulated describing how PC users could disable the copy protection on HD-DVDs.

So could the generative PC ever really disappear? But why would they abandon the generative PC at home?

It is not only highly useful to end users; it also has an open API application programming interface to its map data, which means that a third-party Web site creator can start with a mere list of street addresses and immediately produce on her site a Google Map with a digital push-pin at each address.

Software built on open APIs that can be withdrawn is much more precarious than software built under the old PC model, where users with Windows could be expected to have Windows for months or years at a time, whether or not Microsoft wanted them to keep it.

Sites may also limit functionality that the user expects or assumes will be available. In , for example, MySpace asked one of its most popular users to remove from her page a piece of music promotion software that was developed by an outside company.

It is also allowing a wholesale shift in code and activities from endpoint PCs to the Web. It is just a matter of getting to the right Web site and logging in.

We are beginning to be able to use the Web to do word processing, spreadsheet analyses, indeed, nearly anything we might want to do.

Then, as with tethered appliances, when Web 2. This is an unfortunate transformation. The prospect of tethered appliances and software as service permits major regulatory intrusions to be implemented as minor technical adjustments to code or requests to service providers.

These encroachments may be undesirable, but they may also create opportunities to reconceptualize the rights underlying the threatened traditional markets and business models.

An information technology environment capable of recursive innovation in the realms of business, art, and culture will best thrive with continued regulatory forbearance, recognizing that the disruption occasioned by generative information technology often amounts to a long-term gain even as it causes a short-term threat to some powerful and legitimate interests.

The next chapters explore how some enterprises that are generative at the content level have managed to remain productive without requiring extensive lockdown or external regulation, and apply those lessons to the future of the Internet.

The only rules are that drivers should yield to those on their right at an intersection, and that parked cars blocking others will be towed.

The result so far is counterintuitive: a dramatic improvement in vehicular safety. They communicate more with pedestrians, bicyclists, and other drivers using hand signals and eye contact.

They see other drivers rather than other cars. Standards allow people to tailor their actions to a particular situation.

A small lesson of the verkeersbordvrij experiment is that standards can work better than rules in unexpected contexts.

When we face heavy regulation, we see and shape our behavior more in relation to reward and punishment by an arbitrary external authority, than because of a commitment to the kind of world our actions can help bring about.

When the certainty of authority-sourced reward and punishment is lessened, we might predict two opposing results. The second is basic order maintained, as people choose to respect particular limits in the absence of enforcement.

Whatever counts as a satisfying explanation, we see that sometimes the absence of law has not resulted in the absence of order.

In modern cyberspace, an absence of rules or at least enforcement has led both to a generative blossoming and to a new round of challenges at multiple layers.

Answers then look to entry points within networks and endpoints that can facilitate control. Such an approach reframes the project of cyberlaw to ask: What are the technical tools and social structures that inspire people to act humanely online?

How might they be available to help restrain the damage that malevolent outliers can wreak? How can we arrive at credible judgments about what counts as humane and what counts as malevolent?

Such an atomistic conception of cyberspace naturally pro- After the Stall duces an environment without the social signaling, cues, and relationships that tend toward moderation in the absence of law.

Some of these resemble verkeersbordvrij: curious experiments with unexpected success that suggest a set of solutions well suited to generative environments, so long as the people otherwise subject to more centralized regulation are willing to help contribute to order without it.

We need some new approaches. Producers of educational materials, including dictionaries and encyclopedias, were slow to put their wares into digital form.

We are then free to read the results. The spirit of blogging also falls within this model. This was the natural environment for Stallman in the s as he worked among graduate students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and it parallels the environment in which the Internet and Web were invented.

By , some people were ready to give it a shot. GNE is a resource for spe [sic] speech, and we will strive to keep it that way.

It was eclipsed by another project that unequivocally aimed to be an encyclopedia, emanating from an unusual source. Jimbo Wales founded the Bomis search engine and Web site at the onset of the dot-com boom in In , Wales took some of the money from Bomis to support a new idea: a quality encyclopedia free for everyone to access, copy, and alter for other purposes.

He called it Nupedia, and it was to be built like other encyclopedias: through the commissioning of articles by experts.

In January , Wikipedia was announced to run alongside Nupedia and perhaps feed articles into it after review. Fragments of Nupedia exist online as of this writing, a fascinating time capsule.

The way the wiki software worked, anyone, registered or unregistered, could author or edit a page at any time, and those edits appeared instantaneously.

However, the wiki software made the price of a mistake low, because it automatically kept track of every After the Stall single edit made to a page in sequence, and one could look back at the page in time-lapse to see how it appeared before each successive edit.

This is a far cry from the elements of perfect enforcement: there are few lines between enforcers and citizens; reaction to abuse is not instantaneous; and missteps generally remain recorded in a page history for later visitors to see if they are curious.

The second distinguishing attribute of Wikipedia was the provision of a discussion page alongside every main page.

This allowed people to explain and justify their changes, and anyone disagreeing and changing something back could explain as well. The discussion page provided a channel for such debate and helped new users of Wikipedia make a transition from simply reading its entries to making changes and to understanding that there was a group of people interested in the page on which changes were made and whom could be engaged in conversation before, during, and after editing the page.

The third crucial attribute of Wikipedia was a core of initial editors, many drawn from Nupedia, who shared a common ethos and some substantive expertise.

In these early days, Wikipedia was a backwater; few knew of it, and rarely would a Wikipedia entry be among the top hits of a Google search.

These norms of behavior were learned by new users from the old ones through informal apprenticeships as they edited articles together.

The absence of rules was not nonnegotiable; this was not GNE.

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